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Writing Bug-Free C Code
A Programming Style That Automatically Detects Bugs in C Code
by Jerry Jongerius / January 1995
<< Previous Index Next >>
Chapter 2: Know Your Environment

2.1 The C Language
2.2 C Preprocessor
2.3 Programming Puzzles
  2.4 Microsoft Windows
2.5 Chapter Summary

Before you can efficiently institute new programming methodologies that help eliminate bugs, you need to understand the features available to you in your programming environment.

Quite often, it is beneficial to ask yourself why a particular feature is present in the environment. If you are already using the feature, great, but is there another way you could also be using it? If you are not using the feature, try to think of why the feature was added, because someone needed and requested the feature. Why did they need the feature and how are they using it?
Try to become an expert in your environment.
In the process of learning about all the features of your environment, you may eventually become an expert on it. And the learning process never stops. With each new version of the tools in your environment, look in the manuals to find out what new features have been added. Sometimes features are even removed!

2.1 The C Language

Microsoft C 8.0 (a.k.a. Microsoft Visual C++ 1.0) comes in two editions: the standard edition and the professional edition. The standard edition is targeted to the part-time programmer, the professional edition to the full-time programmer. The professional edition comes with more manuals and, more important, the Windows 3.1 SDK.

No matter which C compiler you are using, it is important that you fully understand the C programming environment.

2.1.1 The Array Operator

You've used the array operator to index an array before, but have you given any thought to how the compiler interprets the array operator? You may not know how it does, especially if you learned C after learning another language first!

Suppose you have a character array called buffer and an integer nIndex used to index into the character array. How do you obtain a character from the character array? Most everyone will tell you buffer[nIndex], namely, the array name followed by the array index in brackets.

Did you know that nIndex[buffer] also works! This syntax is not recommended, but it does work. Do you know why?

The reason that buffer[nIndex] references the same character as nIndex[buffer] is clearly stated in §A7.3.1 of The C Programming Language (2nd ed.) as follows:
A postfix expression followed by an expression in square brackets is a postfix expression denoting a subscripted array reference. One of the two expressions must have type "pointer to T", where T is some type, and the other must have integral type; the type of the subscript expression is T. The expression E1[E2] is identical (by definition) to *((E1)+(E2)).
The key to understanding array references is to understand "The expression E1[E2] is identical (by definition) to *((E1)+(E2))." In terms of the example, buffer[nIndex] is identical to *((buffer)+(nIndex)). Addition is commutative (i.e., 3 + 4 equals 4 + 3), which makes *((buffer)+(nIndex)) identical to *((nIndex)+(buffer)), which is nIndex[buffer].
Array reference E1[E2] is identical to *((E1)+(E2)).
2.1.2 The Structure Pointer Operator

You all know that if p is a pointer to a structure, that p->structure-member refers to a particular member of the structure. Suppose that you could no longer use the structure pointer operator ->. Could you somehow use the other operators in C and continue coding?

The answer is yes. Instead of p->structure-member, use (*p).structure-member.
If p is a pointer to a structure, the structure reference p->member is identical to (*p).member.
Again, this is not a recommended syntax, but it is good to understand that it does work and why it works. It is spelled out in §A7.3.3 of The C Programming Language.

2.1.3 Use the Highest Compiler Warning Level

The warning and error messages of the Microsoft C compiler are getting better with each release of the compiler. I strongly recommend that you compile your code at the highest warning level available to you. For Microsoft C8, this is warning level four. The command line option for this is /W4.

At warning level four, there may be some warning messages that you want to totally ignore. An example in Microsoft C8 are warnings produced by unused declared inline functions. I declare my inline functions in an include file. The source files then use only those inline functions that are needed. Unfortunately, the unreferenced inline functions produce the unreferenced local function has been removed warning message, which is warning number C4505. To disable this warning, you can use the warning #pragma in your include files.

Pragma to disable warning number 4505 in Microsoft C8
#pragma warning(disable:4505)

Some of the useful, interesting warning messages that you can get from the Microsoft C8 compiler are as show in Table 2-1.
Error NumberError Message
C4019empty statement at global scope
C4100unreferenced formal parameter
C4101unreferenced local variable
C4701local variable "identifier" may be used without having been initialized. This warning is given only when compiling with the C8 /Oe global register allocation command-line option.
C4702unreachable code. This warning is given only when compiling with one of the C8 global optimization options (/Oe, /Og or /Ol)
C4705statement has no effect
C4706assignment within conditional expression
C4723potential divide by 0
Table 2-1: Some interesting Microsoft C8 warning messages.

2.1.4 CompilerAssert()

CompilerAssert() is designed to provide error checking at compile-time for assumptions made by the programmer at design-time. These assumptions must be documented within comments in the code as well, but why not also have a compile-time check made whenever possible?

The reasoning behind this is simple. What if a new programmer is working on a section of code in which an assumption is made and the programmer inadvertently changes the code so that the assumption is now invalid? The bug may not show up for a long time. However, if the problem could have been flagged at compile-time, it would have saved a lot of time and effort.
Use CompilerAssert() to verify design-time assumptions at compile-time.
The trick in designing CompilerAssert() is to do it in such a way so that the compiler catches the error at compile-time and yet does not produce any run-time code.

CompilerAssert() define
#define CompilerAssert(exp) extern char _CompilerAssert[(exp)?1:-1]
UPDATE: (exp)?1:-1 used to be (exp)?1:0 but it appears that there are some UNIX C compilers that do not complain about an array of zero length even though the standard says the array size must be greater than zero. So 0 was changed to -1 because every compiler must complain about an array with negative size.
This CompilerAssert() works because it is really just an array declaration and the array bound for an array declaration must be a constant expression that is greater than zero. This is documented in §A8.6.2 of The C Programming Language. Using extern makes sure that no code is generated.

The argument that you pass to CompilerAssert() should be a boolean expression. This means that it evaluates to zero or one. If it is one, the CompilerAssert() is valid and so is the array declaration. If it is zero, the CompilerAssert() is invalid and so is the array declaration. This will cause the compiler to notify you of an error and the compilation will stop.

An added bonus is that the argument to CompilerAssert() must be able to be evaluated at compile-time because the array bound of the array declaration must be a constant expression. This makes it impossible for you to misuse CompilerAssert() and have it accidentally generate some code.

Another bonus is that CompilerAssert() is not limited to use only in functions or source files. It can even be used in include files as needed!

It can also be used more than once in the same scope with no problems. This is due to the usage of extern. Using extern declares the type of _CompilerAssert; it does not define it. Declaring the type of a variable name more than once is OK (as long as the data type is the same). Also, the array size of (exp)?1:-1 changes any non-zero (exp) to one. If this were not done and two different (exp) values were used by two CompilerAssert()'s, the compiler would complain.

Some linkers may require that a _CompilerAssert variable exist while other linkers will optimize out the declared but unused variable. If the linker that you use requires a _CompilerAssert variable, place char _CompilerAssert[1]; in any one of your source files to fix the linker error. The linker that comes with Microsoft C8 does not require this fix.

Let's say that you have coded a function that for some reason requires an internal buffer to be a power of two. Assuming that an ISPOWER2() macro already exists, how would you CompilerAssert() this?

Sample CompilerAssert() usage
...
char buffer[BUFFER_SIZE];
...
CompilerAssert(ISPOWER2(sizeof(buffer)));
...

You should test CompilerAssert() to verify that it is working in your environment. Under Microsoft C8 and UNIX, the following program will produce a 'negative subscript' error message when compiled.

Testing CompilerAssert(), file test.c
#define CompilerAssert(exp) extern char _CompilerAssert[(exp)?1:-1]

int main(void)
{
    /*--- A forced CompilerAssert ---*/
    long lVal;
    CompilerAssert(sizeof(lVal)==0);
    return 0;

} /* main */
 

Compiling test.c under Microsoft C8, should produce an error C2118 cl test.c test.c(7) : error C2118: negative subscript

Compiling test.c under UNIX cc, should produce an error message cc test.c test.c: In function `main': test.c:7: size of array `_CompilerAssert' is negative

2.1.5 Variable Declarations

Have you ever wondered why you have to declare c is a pointer to a char as char*c? Do you know if there is a difference between char buffer[80] and char (*buffer)[80]? At first, C's declaration syntax may appear difficult, but there is a structure behind it that I am going to try to explain. I firmly believe that the better you understand it, the better C programmer you will be.

What is the result of 2 + 3 * 5? It is 17, but why? Why did you multiply before you added? The answer is that there is a precedence relationship among the operators. What is the result of (2 + 3) * 5? It is 25 because the parentheses override the natural precedence relationship. There is a direct analogy to reading C variable declarations.

You have basically four things to look for: First, parentheses, (...); second, arrays, [...]; third, functions, (); fourth, pointers, *. The parentheses, just as in expressions, can override precedence relationships. Arrays [] and functions () have a higher precedence than pointers *. Since arrays and functions always appear to the right of a variable name in a declaration and pointers always appear to the left of the variable name, this in effect tells you that you always move right before moving left when reading the variable declaration.
Always try to move right before moving left when reading a variable declaration.
The step-by-step rules for reading most valid variable declarations are as follows:
  • Find the variable name in the declaration. Say "variable name is a" and try to move to the right.
  • To try to move to the right:
    1. If in an empty set of parentheses, discard the parentheses and try to move to the right.
    2. If you find a right parentheses, try to move to the left.
    3. If you find [count], say "array of count" and try to move to the right.
    4. If you find (args), say "function taking args and returning a" and try to move to the right.
    5. If you find a semicolon, try to move to the left.
  • To try to move to the left:
    1. If you find an asterisk, say "pointer to a" and try to move to the right.
    2. If you find a data type, say "data type" and try to move to the right.


Sample variable declaration one
char (*buffer)[80];
  ^   ^  ^     ^
  4   2  1     3

1. buffer is a
2. pointer to an
3. array of 80
4. char

In English, the translation goes like this. You start with char (*buffer)[80] with the caret ^ indicating your position. Find the variable name buffer and say (1) buffer is a. You now are left with char (*^)[80]. You move to the right and find a right parenthesis, so you move to the left, find an asterisk and say (2) pointer to an. You are now left with char (^)[80]. You move to the right and find that you are in an empty set of parentheses so you now discard them. You are now left with char ^[80]. You move to the right and find an array, so you say (3) array of 80 and try to move to the left. You are now left with char, a data type, so you say (4) char.

Sample variable declaration two
int (*(*testing)(int))[10];
 ^   ^ ^   ^      ^    ^
 6   4 2   1      3    5

1. testing is a
2. pointer to a
3. function taking an integer and returning a
4. pointer to an
5. array of ten
6. integers


Sample variable declaration three: signal function
void (*signal(int, void (*)(int)))(int);
 ^    ^  ^     ^    ^    ^   ^      ^
 8    6  1     2    5    3   4      7

1. signal is a
2. function taking an integer for the first argument and a
3. pointer to a
4. function taking an integer and returning a
5. void for the second argument. This signal function returns a
6. pointer to a
7. function taking an integer and returning a
8. void


Going back to the question at the beginning of this section, do you know if there is a difference between char buffer[80] and char (*buffer)[80]? What is buffer? Does it look as if buffer is a pointer to an array of 80 characters in both cases?

In the first case, buffer is an array of 80 characters. In the second case, buffer is a pointer to an array of 80 characters. It may help clarify the problem if you ask "What is the data type of *buffer?" in both cases. In the first case, it is a character. In the second case, it is an array of 80 characters. So there is a seemingly slight but quite significant difference.

This is just an introduction to variable declarations. I hope that you have a new insight into how to read declarations and urge you to look into the topic further.

2.1.6 Typedef's Made Easy

I can remember when I first started to learn C that I had difficulty with typedef's. I do not know exactly why, but one day it just hit me. Take any valid variable definition, add typedef to the front of it and the variable name is now the data type.

PSTR is a variable that is a character pointer
char *PSTR;


PSTR is a new type that is a character pointer
typedef char *PSTR;


2.1.7 Name Space

It is possible in C and C++ to spell a typedef name and a variable name exactly the same. Consider the following.

Code that works, but is a bad programming practice
typedef int x;
int main(void)
{
    x x;
    return 0;

} /* main */

While some people may consider this neat, it leads to programs that can be hard to read and understand. My advice to you is to assume that everything has a unique name.
Keep all the names in your programs unique.
If you follow the programming methodologies described in later chapters, you will never have the possibility of name collisions.

2.1.8 Code Segment Variables

An interesting feature of the Microsoft C8 compiler is the ability to place read-only variables in the code segment. Read/Write variables are not permitted since writing to a code segment is an access violation, resulting in a general protection fault. A set of macros that help to place read-only strings in the code segment are as follows.

CSCHAR define
#define BASEDIN(seg) _based(_segname(#seg))
#define CSCHAR static char BASEDIN(_CODE)

CSCHAR (code segment char) may be used just as a char would be used. Notice the usage of static in the #define. This indicates that the variable is allocated permanent storage and that it is known only in the scope in which it is defined.

CSCHAR uses based pointers to place a string in the code segment. Based pointers are not discussed here since there is an excellent discussion of based pointers in the Microsoft C documentation and in the September 1990 Microsoft Systems Journal article by Richard Shaw.
CSCHAR is a great way of placing read-only strings in the code segment.
For non-segmented architectures, #define the BASEDIN() macro to be nothing. While this does not give you a code segment variable, it does allow you to port the code easily.

Using CSCHAR
CSCHAR szFile[]=__FILE__;
...
OutputName(szFile);

Another use of code segment variables is for placing read-only data tables in the segment in which they are used. One ideal application of this is in the generation of 16-bit and 32-bit cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs). There are well known table-driven methods for speeding up CRC calculations. If these tables were contained in a data segment, they would use valuable space and would always be in memory. By embedding the tables in the code segment that does the CRC calculations, you free up data segment storage. The code segment is more than likely marked as discardable under Windows; therefore you now have code and read-only data that is read in from the disk and discarded as a set.

2.1.9 Adjacent String Literals

Consider the following sample code and the output that is produced.

Sample code
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    printf( "String: %s" "One","Two" "Three" );
    return 0;

} /* main */

Output from the sample code String: TwoThreeOne

Notice how adjacent string literals are being concatenated in this sample code. The first concatenation is between "String: %s" and "One" to yield "String: %sOne". The second concatenation is between "Two" and "Three" to yield "TwoThree". So the statement really is printf( "String: %sOne", "TwoThree" );, which explains the output produced by this code.

In Microsoft C8, string concatenation is done by the compiler, not by the preprocessor. This feature is especially useful for splitting long strings across multiple source lines as in the following example.

Splitting up long strings
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    printf( "This is an example of using C's ability to\n"
            "contatenate adjacent string literals.  It\n"
            "is a great way to get ONE printf to display\n"
            "a help message.\n" );
    return 0;

} /* main */

It is also a good way to place macro arguments in a string.

Placing macro arguments in a string literal
#define PRINTD(var) printf( "Variable " #var "=%d\n", var )

PRINTD() works by using the stringizing operator (#) on the macro argument, namely #var. This places the macro argument in quotes and allows the compiler to concatenate the adjacent string literals.

PRINTD() example
#include <stdio.h>
#define PRINTD(var) printf( "Variable " #var "=%d\n", var )
int main(void)
{
    int nTest=10;
    PRINTD(nTest);
    return 0;

} /* main */

PRINTD() example output Variable nTest=10

2.1.10 Variable Number of Arguments

The following discussion is specific to Microsoft C8 and the Intel machine architecture. Other compilers and machine architectures may implement function calls and argument passing differently.

C is one of the few languages where passing a variable number of arguments to a function is incredibly easy and incredibly powerful. This mechanism is what is used by printf().

Printf() prototype for Microsoft C8 in stdio.h
int __cdecl printf(const char *, ...);

The ... declaration indicates to the compiler that the following types and number of arguments may vary. It can appear only at the end of an argument list.

Pretend for the moment that you are the compiler writer. How would you implement a variable number of arguments being passed to a function?

Traditional architecture. Consider for a moment what happens at the machine level when a function call is made. A caller pushes onto the stack the arguments that are required by a function and then the function call is made, which pushes the return address onto the stack. You are now executing the function. This function knows that there is a return address on the stack and the number, type and relative stack position of each argument. When the function is ready to return to the caller, it obtains the return address from the stack, removes the arguments from the stack and returns to the caller.

Let us now consider printf(). With a variable number of arguments, how does the printf() function know how many arguments to pop off the stack when returning from the function? It cannot. The solution is to let the caller restore any arguments pushed onto the stack.

Consider the order in which arguments should be pushed onto the stack. Should the first argument be pushed first or should the last argument be pushed first?

Printf example
printf( "Testing %s %d", pString, nNum );

If the first argument is pushed first (arguments are pushed left to right), the variable argument section is pushed last. In other words, the address of the format string is pushed, then a variable number of arguments is pushed and finally the function call is made, which pushes the return address. The problem is that the relative stack location of the format string address changes depending upon the number of arguments. (See Figure 2-1).

Figure 2-1: Pushing function arguments left to right.
If the last argument is pushed first (arguments are pushed right to left), the variable argument section is pushed first. In other words, the variable number of arguments are pushed right to left, then the address of the format string is pushed and finally the function call is made, which pushes the return address. The relative stack location of the format string address is now adjacent to the return address. (See Figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2: Pushing function arguments right to left.
The solution. In order to support passing a variable number of arguments to functions, it appears that the arguments to a function must be pushed right to left and that the caller, not the callee, is responsible for removing the pushed arguments from the stack.

2.1.11 Calling Conventions Were you aware there is more than one way for a function call in Microsoft C8 to be implemented? Each method has advantages and disadvantages.

C calling convention. When a function call is made using the C calling convention, the arguments are pushed onto the stack right to left and the caller is responsible for removing the pushed arguments. This convention was designed to allow for a variable number of arguments to be passed into a function, which can be an incredibly valuable tool (e.g., the printf() function). The disadvantage is that the instructions needed to clean up the stack are performed after every call to the function. If you are making a lot of calls in your program, this extra code space adds up.

Pascal calling convention. When a function call is made using the Pascal calling convention, the arguments are pushed onto the stack left to right and the callee is responsible for removing the pushed arguments. This convention does not allow for a variable number of arguments. It does, however, conserve code space since the stack is cleaned up by the callee and not the caller. Therefore the cleanup is performed only once. This calling convention is used by all the Windows API functions, except for DebugOutput() and wsprintf(), which follow the C calling convention.

Fastcall calling convention. When a function call is made using the fastcall calling convention, an attempt is made by the compiler to pass as many arguments as possible through the CPU's registers. Those arguments that cannot be passed through registers are passed to the function following the Pascal calling convention. There are restrictions on when this calling convention can be used. Refer to the Microsoft C8 reference manual for more information. This calling convention is used for all functions that are local (private) to a module (see §6.6.7).

2.1.12 Code Generation

It is sometimes incredibly valuable to see the code that the Microsoft C8 compiler is producing. To do this, use the /Fc command line option. The resulting .cod file contains the mixed source code and assembly code produced.

The primary reason to do this is to make sure that the programming methodologies that you institute are not adding an abnormal amount of processing-time overhead to the code.

In a few rare circumstances, you can use the code generation option to track down compiler bugs.

I use this option at times because I am just curious to see how good the optimizing compiler is. Sometimes I could swear at the compiler and other times I am amazed at what it is able to do. Microsoft C8 can really do a great job of code optimization. An example that I like to show is the absolute value macro.

Absolute value macro
#define ABS(x) (((x)>0)?(x):-(x))

When the ABS() macro is used on a 16-bit integer, the generated code without optimizations looks like the following.

Code generated by absolute value macro without optimizations
    cmp variable reference,OFFSET 0  ;; is number negative?
    jle L1                           ;; .yes, handle neg number
    mov ax, variable reference       ;; no, get number
    jmp L2                           ;; .and exit
L1: mov ax, variable reference       ;; get negative number
    neg ax                           ;; .and make positive
L2:

When the ABS() macro is used on a 16-bit integer, the generated code with optimizations looks like the following.

Code generated by absolute value macro with /Os optimizations
1.  mov  ax, variable reference      ;; get number
2.  cwd                              ;; sign extend
3.  xor  ax,dx                       ;; if number is positive, do
4.  sub  ax,dx                       ;; .nothing, otherwise negate

This optimized assembly code is a work of art. In step 1, the variable is moved into register ax. Step 2 sign extends ax into dx. So, if the number is positive, dx gets set to 0; otherwise the number is negative and dx gets set to all bits turned on (0xFFFF; negative 1). Provided the number is positive, dx contains 0, so steps 3 and 4 leave the number unchanged. However, if the number is negative, dx contains 0xFFFF, so steps 3 and 4 perform a two's complement, which negates the number. Not bad!

2.1.13 Dangling else Problem

Consider the following code.

Code sample showing dangling else problem
if (test1)
    if (test2) {
        ...
        }
else {
    ...
    }

The problem with this code is that the else does not belong to the test1 if statement, but instead it belongs to the test2 if statement. An even bigger problem is that the code may have worked at some point in the past before a maintenance programmer included the test2 if statement which previously did not exist. The solution to the immediate problem is simple, however; add a begin and end brace to the test1 if statement as follows.

Code sample rewritten to eliminate dangling else problem
if (test1) {
    if (test2) {
        ...
        }
    }
else {
    ...
    }

A programming methodology that I have instituted to completely eliminate any dangling else problems is to say that every if and every else must have begin and end braces. No exceptions.
Every if block of code and else block of code must have begin and end braces.
2.1.14 Problems with strncpy()

A function in the C library that I never liked much is strncpy(). Do you know what this function does? Do you know what is going to happen in the following program?

strncpy() problem, but code may still work
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
    char buffer[11];
    strncpy( buffer, "hello there", sizeof(buffer) );
    printf( "%s", buffer );
    return 0;

} /* main */

strncpy(string1, string2, n) works by copying n characters of string2 to string1. However, if there is no room in string1 for the null character at the end of string2, it is not copied into the string1 buffer. In other words, the buffer is not properly null terminated. If n is greater than the length of string2, string1 is padded with null characters up to length n.

There are two major problems with strncpy. The first is that string1 may not be properly null terminated. The second is the execution overhead of null padding.

In the above example, there is no terminating null for the string copied into buffer. Who knows what the printf() in the example prints out?

The problem is even worse. Depending upon your computer architecture, the above example may still work every time! It all depends upon the alignment of data types. In most cases, 12 bytes are allocated for buffer instead of 11 due to data alignment concerns of the underlying CPU. If this extra byte just happens to be the null character, the code works. If not, the code fails by printing out more than it should in the printf() statement. It will just keep on printing characters until it reaches a null character.
Replace questionable and confusing library functions. Strncpy() is an example of a bad function.
A strncpy() bug existed in the STARTDOC printer escape under Windows 2.x (STARTDOC tells the system that you are starting to print a new document and it also names the document). If you passed in a string larger than the internal buffer, which was 32 bytes, the buffer did not get properly null terminated.

2.1.15 Spell Default Correctly

When you code a switch statement, be careful not to misspell default, because if you do, the compiler will not complain! Your misspelled version of default is considered by the compiler to be a label.
A misspelled default in a switch is considered a label.
Remember that a label is any text you choose followed by a colon. There is no way for the compiler to know that you misspelled default.

2.1.16 Logical Operators Use Short-Circuit Logic

Expressions that are connected by the logical and (&&) and logical or (||) are evaluated left to right and the evaluation of the expression stops once the result can be fully determined.

For example, given ((A) && (B)), expression A is evaluated first and if zero (false), the result of the entire expression is known to be false so B is not evaluated. B is evaluated if and only if A is non-zero (true).

Given ((A) || (B)), expression A is evaluated first and if non-zero (true), the result of the entire expression is known to be true so B is not evaluated. B is evaluated if and only if A is zero (false).

Exiting out of a logical expression early because the final expression value is known is called short-circuit logic. Consider the following example.

Short-circuit logic example
if ((lpMem) && (*lpMem=='A')) {
    (code body)
    }

In this example, lpMem is checked first. If and only if lpMem is non-null does the second check (*lpMem=='A') take place. This is important because if both checks took place and lpMem was null, the *lpMem indirection would more than likely cause a fault and the operating system would halt the program.

2.1.17 De Morgan's Laws

Do you know how to simplify '!(!a || !b)'? The answer is '(a && b)'. Being able to simplify a complicated expression can be important when trying to understand code that someone else has written. Sometimes being able to not a complicated expression to understand what the expression is not helps you understand the expression.

De Morgans laws
1.  !(a && b) == (!a || !b)
2.  !(a || b) == (!a && !b)

One simple rule applies to De Morgans Laws. To not a logical expression, not both terms and change the logical operator. This helps greatly when you have a complicated logical expression where one of the terms is another logical expression. To not a term that is itself a logical expression, simply reapply the rule.
To not a logical expression, not both terms and change the logical operator. Apply this rule recursively as needed.

2.2 C Preprocessor

2.2.1 Writing Macros

How do you write macros? Are you aware of the problems that macros can have? Let's take the following SQUARE() macro.

SQUARE() macro, has problems
#define SQUARE(x) x*x

What is SQUARE(7)? It is 49. What is SQUARE(2+3)? Is it 25? No, it is 11. Expanding the macro gives 2+3*2+3. The multiplication is done first, so now you can see why the result is 11. You may now be inclined to rewrite the SQUARE() macro as follows.

SQUARE() macro, has problems
#define SQUARE(x) (x)*(x)

This macro may still have problems with the unary operators. Consider sizeof SQUARE(10), which is really sizeof (10)*(10), which is not sizeof((10)*(10))! The correct way to write SQUARE() is as follows.

SQUARE() macro, final form
#define SQUARE(x) ((x)*(x))

Notice the extra set of parentheses. This too has problems in some special circumstances. Namely, how does SQUARE(++x) behave? It is actually undefined because it is up to the compiler vendor to decide exactly when multiple post- / pre- increment/decrement operations take place in relation to each other in the entire statement. Let's say x contains three; what is ((++x)*(++x))? Is it 16, 20 or 25? Or what about SQUARE(x++), which is ((x++)*(x++)). Is it 9? Is it 12? The answer is compiler specific.
Macros that reference an argument more than once have problems with arguments that have side effects.
A possible solution to the problem of side effects is to use inline functions, a feature of C++. This is OK, but in doing so, you lose the polymorphic behavior of working on multiple data types automatically. This is because inline functions are true functions and you must declare the data types of the arguments. So, you must write a new inline function for every data type that you want the inline function to work with. This admittedly is a little bit of a pain, but it may be worth it in some cases.

The best solution, available only in some C++ environments, is the use of templates. Templates are used to describe how to do something, while not specifying the data type to use. Templates are still new and not included in all C++ development environments. They are not included in Microsoft C8.

2.2.2 Using Macros That Contain Scope

Have you ever written a macro that needed its own scope? If so, how did you go about writing it? Consider the following example.

A macro that needs a scope, has problems
#define POW3(x,y) int i; for(i=0; i<y; ++i) {x*=3;}

The problem with this macro is that because it uses temporary variable i, the body of the macro must be contained within its own scope in C and should be contained in its own scope in C++. Consider the following.

A macro with scope, has problems
#define POW3(x,y) {int i; for(i=0; i<y; ++i) {x*=3;}}

Even this latest fix may have problems as this next example shows.

Using POW3(), has problems
if (expression)
    POW3(lNum, nPow);
else
    (statement)

The problem is the semicolon after POW3. The POW3 macro without the semicolon is a valid statement by itself due to the begin/end braces creating a scope. Adding the semicolon only creates a new statement, which is the problem since the else can then no longer be paired with the if.

So how can a macro, no matter how many statements it contains, be enclosed in its own scope, be treated like one statement and require that it be terminated by a semicolon? The solution to this problem is subtle but very elegant.

A macro with scope, final form
#define POW3(x,y) do {int i; for(i=0; i<y; ++i) {x*=3;}} while(0)

By using a do/while loop that never loops, the macro body gets its own scope and requires a semicolon after it. Most optimizing compilers will optimize away the loop that never loops.
Using a do/while loop that never loops is a great way to hide the body of a macro within its own scope.
However, some C compilers (Microsoft C8 included) may complain about the constant zero in while(0) when the highest warning level of the compiler is used. If this occurs, you can use a #pragma to disable the warning.

Pragma to disable warning number 4127 in Microsoft C8
#pragma warning(disable:4127)

2.2.3 If Statements in Macros

If you write a macro that contains if statements, you must be careful not to have the dangling else §2.1.13 problem previously discussed.

Macro containing if/else, has problems
#define ODS(s) if (bDebugging) OutputDebugString(#s)

One solution would be to enclose the body of the macro in a do/while loop that never loops, which would have the added benefit of requiring the macro to be terminated with a semicolon. This version of ODS() has the dangling else problem. However, through careful usage of the if/else statement, you can eliminate the problem.

Macro containing if/else, problem solved
#define ODS(s) if (!bDebugging) {} else OutputDebugString(#s)

This version of ODS() no longer has the dangling else problem. The solution is to always rework the macro so that it contains both an if clause and an else clause. Again, a semicolon is required after a macro that uses this new form.

Be careful when writing macros that contain if/else statements not to end the macro with an ending brace, or the macro terminated by a semicolon will actually be treated like two statements.
Never conclude a macro with an ending brace.
2.2.4 Ending a Macro with a Semicolon or a Block of Code

It is possible to use the subtleties of an if/else statement in a macro to your advantage. For example, how would you write a macro that must either be terminated with a semicolon or a block of code?

The WinAssert() §3.3 macro uses this technique to allow a block of code to be conditionally executed.

WinAssert() syntax
/*--- Ended with a semicolon ---*/
WinAssert(expression);
/*--- Or ended with a block of code ---*/
WinAssert(expression) {
    (block of code)
    }

Notice that the WinAssert() syntax allows either a semicolon or a block of code to follow it. The WinAssert() macro looks like the following.

WinAssert() macro
#define WinAssert(exp) if (!(exp)) {AssertError;} else

The key to this WinAssert() macro is that whatever follows the macro is what follows the else statement. A semicolon or a block of code are both valid in this context.

2.2.5 LOOP(), LLOOP() and ENDLOOP Macros

The vast majority of the loops that I have written start at zero, have a less than comparison with some upper limit and increment the looping variable by one every iteration. Since this is the case, why not abstract this out of the code into a macro? In addition, since the looping variable is used to control the loop, it should not be visible (accessible) outside the loop. The solution involves three macros. The first two, LOOP() and LLOOP(), set up the for loop for int's and long's. The third macro, ENDLOOP, finishes what LOOP() and LLOOP() started.

The LOOP(), LLOOP() and ENDLOOP macros
#define LOOP(nArg) { int _nMax=nArg; int loop; \
    for (loop=0; loop<_nMax; ++loop)
#define LLOOP(lArg) { long _lMax=lArg; long lLoop; \
    for (lLoop=0; lLoop<_lMax; ++lLoop)
#define ENDLOOP }

Notice how the extra begin/end brace pair limit the scope of the loop and lLoop variables and that the loop limit is evaluated only once. This allows costly expressions such as strlen(). to be used as the loop limit because the evaluation takes place once, not on every loop iteration.

Sample code that uses LOOP(), LLOOP() and ENDLOOP
LOOP(10) {
    printf( "%d\n", loop );
    } ENDLOOP
LLOOP(10) {
    printf( "%ld\n", lLoop );
    } ENDLOOP

You may be wondering why the C++ method of declaring the loop variable inside the for statement isn't used instead. This would allow you to get rid of the begin brace and ENDLOOP macro.

C++ loop code, with variable declaration problems
for (int loop=0; loop<10; ++loop) {
    ...
    }
...
for (int loop=0; loop<10; ++loop) {
    ...
    }

Unfortunately, the C++ method defines the loop variable from the definition point until the end of the current scope (but this is changing in C++). In other words, the loop variable would now be known outside the scope of the loop and using two LOOP()'s in the same scope would end up declaring the looping variable twice, which cannot be done in the same scope.

2.2.6 NUMSTATICELS() Macro

Provided you have an array in which the number of elements in the array is known to the compiler, write a macro NUMSTATICELS() (number of static elements) that given only the array name returns the number of elements in the array. Consider the following example.

NUMSTATICELS() desired behavior example
#include <stdio.h>
#define NUMSTATICELS(pArray) (determine pArray array size)
int main(void)
{
    long alNums[100];
    printf( "array size=%d\n", NUMSTATICELS(alNums) );
    return 0;

} /* main */

Desired output array size=100


How would you write NUMSTATICELS() so that the above example works? The solution is to write NUMSTATICELS() as follows.

NUMSTATICELS() macro
#define NUMSTATICELS(pArray) (sizeof(pArray)/sizeof(*pArray))

This macro works because sizeof(pArray) is the size in bytes of the entire array and sizeof(*pArray) is the size in bytes of one element in the array. Dividing gives the maximum number of elements possible in the array. NUMSTATICELS() does not need to work on a pointer to a dynamically allocated array.

So, in the above example, if we assume that sizeof(long) is 4, sizeof(alNums) is 400 and sizeof(*alNums) is 4. Dividing gives the desired output of 100.

2.2.7 Preprocessor Operators

Ask any C programmer what the preprocessor is used for and you hear things like macros, including header files, conditional compilation, and so on. These are obvious and useful features. However, ask the same C programmer what preprocessor operators are and you may get a blank stare.

The two most useful preprocessor operators are the stringizing operator (#) and the token pasting operator (##). Both of these operators are usually used in the context of a #define directive. The token pasting operator is at the heart of the class methodology introduced in Chapter 4.

Stringizing operator (#). This operator causes a macro argument to be enclosed in double quotation marks. The proper syntax is #operand.

Stringizing operator example
#define STRING(x) #x

Therefore, STRING(hello) yields "hello".

In some older preprocessors, you accomplish stringizing of x in a macro (i.e., #x) directly by enclosing the macro argument x in quotes (i.e., "x"). Try this technique if you do not have a standard C compiler that allows stringizing.

Token pasting operator (##). This operator takes two tokens, one on each side of the ## and merges them into one token. The proper syntax is token1##token2. This is useful when one or both tokens are expanded macro arguments. Consider the following example.

Token pasting operator example
CSCHAR szPE7008[]="function ptr";
CSCHAR szPE700A[]="string ptr";
CSCHAR szPE7060[]="coords";
...
#define EV(n) {0x##n,szPE##n}
static struct {
    WORD wError;
    LPSTR lpError;
    } BASEDCS ErrorToTextMap[]={ EV(7008), EV(700A), EV(7060) };

In this example, EV(7008) expands to {0x7008,szPE7008}, which initializes the wError and lpError elements of ErrorToTextMap (which happens to be in the code segment). For me, the EV() macro makes this code shorter and easier to understand.

2.2.8 Token Pasting in a Reiser Preprocessor

In some old preprocessors that do not support the token pasting operator, it is still possible to perform token pasting provided the preprocessor follows the Reiser model. This is done by replacing ## with /**/. This works because the comment /**/ is removed and replaced with nothing, effectively pasting the tokens on either side of /**/.

This technique does not work in newer standard C compilers that replace comments with a single space character. However, newer standard C compilers have the token pasting operator, so this technique is not needed.

2.2.9 Preprocessor Commands Containing Preprocessor Commands

Have you ever wanted to write a macro that referred to another preprocessing directive? Consider the following example.

Optimize On/Off macros, which do not work
#define OPTIMIZEOFF #pragma optimize("",off)
#define OPTIMIZEON #pragma optimize("",on)

The OPTIMIZEOFF and OPTIMIZEON macros attempt to abstract out how optimizations are turned off and turned on during a compilation. The problem with these macros is that they are trying to perform another preprocessor directive, which is impossible with any standard C preprocessor. However, this does not mean that it cannot be done.

The solution to this problem is to run the source through the preprocessor twice during the compile instead of just once. Most compilers allow you to run only the preprocessing pass of their compiler and redirect the output to a file. If this output file is then run back through the compiler, the optimize macros work!

Testing extra preprocessor pass in Microsoft C8 for C code
cl -P test.c
cl -Tctest.i

Testing extra preprocessor pass in Microsoft C8 for C++ code cl -P test.cpp cl -Tptest.i

2.3 Programming Puzzles

This section is designed to get you thinking. Some of the puzzles presented here have real programming value, while others have no programming value whatsoever. The point of these exercises is to get you thinking in a new light about things you already know about. If you want to skip this section, go to §2.4

2.3.1 ISPOWER2() Macro

Try to spend some time coming up with a macro that returns one if the macro argument is a power of two, or returns zero if the macro argument is not a power of two. The solution is as follows.

Macro that determines if a number is a power of two
#define ISPOWER2(x) (!((x)&((x)-1)))

This ISPOWER2() macro works for any number greater than zero because any number that is a power of two has the binary form "100...0", namely, a binary one followed by any number of binary zeros. Subtracting one from this number changes the leading binary one to zero and all trailing binary zeros to binary ones. Therefore, ANDing with the original number produces zero. Any number that is not a power of two has at least one bit in common with that number minus one. Therefore ANDing produces a non-zero number. Since this is just the opposite of the desired return value, the value is NOTed to get the desired result.

For example, the number 16 in binary is 00010000. Subtracting 1 from 16 is 15, which in binary is 00001111. So, ANDing 00010000 (16) with 00001111 (15) yields 00000000 (0) and NOTing gives 1. This tells us the number 16 is a power of two.

As another example, the number 100 in binary is 01100100. Subtracting 1 from 100 is 99, which in binary is 01100011. So, ANDing 01100100 (100) with 01100011 (99) yields 01100000 (96) and NOTing gives zero. This tells us that the number 100 is not a power of two.

2.3.2 Integer Math May be Faster

Let us say you have an integer x and an integer y and you want x to contain 45 percent of the value contained in y. One obvious solution is to use x = (int)(0.45*y);. While this works, there is a shortcut that avoids floating pointer math and uses only integer arithmetic. 0.45 is just 45/100 or 9/20. So why not instead use x = (int)(9L*y/20);? The only disadvantage of this technique is that you need to watch out for overflows. Play around with this technique with some small numbers by hand until you get a good feel for what is going on.

2.3.3 Swap Two Variables without a Third Variable

This is an old assembly language trick that can also be used in C. Given two assembly language registers, how can you swap the contents of the registers without using a third register or memory location (and, of course, not using a swap instruction if the assembly you are familiar with has such an instruction). The solution is as follows.

Swapping integers x, y without a third integer using C
1.  x ^= y;
2.  y ^= x;
3.  x ^= y;

After step 1, x contains (x^y). After step 2, y contains (y^(x^y)), which is just x. Finally, after step 3, x contains ((x^y)^x), which is y. This is it!

The trick to this technique is realizing that any number XORed with itself is 0. XOR also has useful applications in GUI environments.

2.3.4 Smoother XORs in a Graphical User Interface

A standard technique used in Graphical User Interfaces is to invert part of the display screen (using XOR) while the user is resizing a window to show the user the new size of the window. XORing again to the same screen locations restores the screen image to its original form.

So, when the user starts to resize the window, the location is marked by XORing the window border. When the user moves a little bit, the same location is XORed to remove the highlight, the proposed border is sized to the new location and it is XORed onto the screen, showing its new location. This process works pretty well but it results in screen flicker. The entire inverted window border is constantly being placed down and removed in its entirety.

Let's analyze the process in abstract terms using regions. We have three components: the screen (SCRN), the old border region (OBR) and the new border region (NBR). The border is placed down by a SCRN ^= OBR operation. As the user moves the mouse, the goal is to turn the screen containing the old border region into a screen containing the new border region. (See Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-3: Moving a window border
The old way of implementing this is to remove the old border followed by placing down the new border. The old border is removed by a SCRN ^= OBR operation and the new border is placed down by a SCRN ^= NBR operation. In other words, SCRN = (SCRN ^ OBR) ^ NBR. (See Figure 2-4)

Figure 2-4: The standard way of moving a window border.
Does it really matter in what order you XOR? No, not at all, since XOR is associative. So why not instead do SCRN = SCRN ^ (OBR^NBR)? The screen now updates without even a hint of flicker! This is because you are finding the difference between the old border region and the new border region (i.e., XOR) and XORing that difference onto the screen. The result is that the old border is erased and that the new border is now visible. (See Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5: A better way to move a window border
The key to this magic is having region support provided to you by the environment you are working on.

For Microsoft Windows, the functions of interest are CreateRectRgn(), SetRectRgn() and CombineRgn().

2.3.5 Is ~0 More Portable Than 0xFFFF

How do you fill an integer variable so that all bits are turned on, but in a portable, data type size independent manner? Do you use -1? No, because this assumes a two's complement machine. What if you are on a one's complement machine? Do you use 0xFFFF, 0xFFFFFFFF or whatever? No, since this assumes that there are a particular number of bits in an integer.

The only thing you can be sure of in every machine is that zero is represented as all bits turned off. This is the key. There is a built-in C operator to flip all the bits and it is the one's complement ~ operator. Therefore, ~0 fills an integer value with all ones in a portable manner.

This technique also works well to strip off the lower bits of a number in a portable manner. For example, ~7 has all the bits in the resulting number turned on except for the lower three bits. Therefore, wSize&~7 forces the lower three bits of wSize to zero.

2.3.6 Does y = -x; Always Work?

You may be wondering if I wrote that statement correctly. I did. Do you know when y = -x fails? It fails on a two's complement machine when x equals the smallest negative number. Consider a 16-bit two's complement number where the smallest negative number is -32768. So, if it fails, what is the result of negative -32768? It is -32768. The valid range of numbers on a two's complement machine for a short integer is -32768 to 32767. There is one more negative number than there are positive numbers.

2.3.7 One's and Two's Complement Numbers

In one's complement notation, the negative of a number is obtained by inverting all the bits in the number. For short (16-bit) integers, this results in a range from -32767 to 32767. So what happened to the extra number? Well, there are now two representations for zero. Namely a negative zero (all bits on) and a positive zero (all bits off). One's complement works, but it requires special case hardware to make sure everything works. One day someone came up with the bright idea of two's complement, which is simply one's complement plus one. It eliminates the two representations for zero and eliminates the special case hardware.

Two's complement negation as a macro
#define NEGATE(x) (((x)^~0)+1)

So why can two's complement be implemented so efficiently? For simplicity, let's assume a three-bit unsigned integer. The integer can take on the values from 0 to 7. Any arithmetic on the numbers are modulo 8 (remainder upon division by 8). As an example, adding 1 to 7 is 0 and adding 3 to 7 is 2. You can verify this by going to the first number (e.g., 7) on the base eight number line and moving right the number of times specified by the second number (e.g., 3).

Base eight number line
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 ...

You will quickly realize that adding 7 to any number is like subtracting 1, adding 6 is like subtracting 2, and so on. So what if you simply label 4 through 7 slightly differently.

Base eight number line as signed numbers
0 1 2 3 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -4 -3 -2 -1 ...

Half the numbers are now negative and the other half are for zero and positive numbers. So adding negative 1 (i.e., 7) to any number really does work. That is it! This two's complement technique can be extended to any bit size.

2.4 Microsoft Windows

One of the first things one learns about the Windows environment is that it allows for true code sharing. An example of this is running an application, such as Notepad, more than once. A new data segment is created for each new instance of the application, code segments and resources being shared between the two instances. This is why there are such things as "handle to a module" and "handle to an instance." The module handle basically refers to the executable file, the common part per instance, and the instance handle refers to the application data segment, the unique part per instance.

2.4.1 Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs)

A more powerful mechanism of sharing both code and data is provided through the use of Dynamic Link Libraries or DLLs. In fact, most of the Windows environment is a set of DLLs, namely the USER, KERNEL and GDI DLLs. For DLLs, no matter how many applications use or reference them, only one set of code is loaded and only one data segment is loaded (when using the preferred medium memory model).

Writing DLLs allows you to write code that is truly sharable among applications and promotes the "write-it-once" attitude. After all you have done to learn Windows, why not write the majority of your code as a DLL so that you now have a library of code waiting to be used by your next killer application. You may argue that there is no need for this since all you have to do is copy the code, but what you have gained is code maintainability. Let's say you rewrite some of the shared code. With a DLL you change it once. With multiple copies of the code you have to change it multiple times.

2.4.2 Special DLL DS!=SS Concerns

DLL programming is one of the least understood concepts of Windows programming because it is considered "Advanced Programming" and is always one of the last chapters of any Windows book. DLL programming is also more difficult than programming for an application due to "DS!=SS" (data segment does not equal stack segment) concerns.

In a medium model Windows program you typically have multiple code segments and one data segment. The stack for the application is contained within the application data segment so that near pointers can access both data segment data and stack segment data. It then makes sense to set DS==SS (data segment equals stack segment). When a DLL is called, the data segment is changed but not the stack segment. You now have a "DS!=SS" situation. This allows the DLL function to access parameters passed to the function (on the stack) and private data (in the DLL data segment). However, a near pointer can access only the data segment in a DLL, not the stack segment. This causes problems for a fair number of useful C library functions. From experience I would stay away from C library calls in a DLL unless you have a good reason to use them. Instead, code the functionality yourself.

2.4.3 Real-Mode Windows

Windows 1.x and 2.x were real-mode operating systems. They did not use the protected-mode architecture of the Intel CPU. This all changed with the introduction of Windows 3.0. It supports real-mode, standard-mode (a.k.a. 286 mode) and enhanced-mode (a.k.a. 386 mode). With the introduction of Windows 3.1, real-mode support has been removed.

Have you ever wondered how Windows running in protected-mode could continue to run old Windows applications that were designed for real-mode? That this even works is a tribute to the original designers of Windows 1.0! The question should be rephrased as follows: Can you believe that Microsoft got a protected-mode architecture to run under the real-mode of the CPU?

I want to give you an inside look into one of the more interesting features of Windows and how it was implemented under real-mode. The feature is discardable code segments.

An application under Windows 2.x is usually composed of many code segments. Most of the code segments were movable and discardable. In other words, the code could be moved around in memory by the operating system as needed and if memory became tight, the code segment could be discarded from memory to make room for other things.

As an example, let's say you have function A in segment A that calls function B in segment B. There is now a far return address on the stack. Now let's assume that segment A is discarded. Under a protected-mode operating system, returning to function A would fault to the operating system and segment A would simply be loaded back into memory. What about real-mode? Returning to function A cannot cause a CPU fault.

How would you solve this problem?

The solution is rather ingenious and requires compiler support to be fully implemented. Suppose that a segment is moved in real-mode memory. Since the segment address has changed, walk the stack and patch those return addresses on the stack that have the old segment address with the new segment address. If the segment is discarded, walk the stack and patch the address with an address into the operating system that reloads the segment.

Walking the stack under the Intel segmented architecture is complicated by the fact that the addresses can either be near (16 bit) or far (32 bit). So when walking the stack the operating system has no way of knowing if it should expect a near or far address. It cares only about the far addresses because near addresses do not have to be patched.

The solution has to do with the stack frame that is built for all functions and the fact that the Intel stack segment is word aligned.

Within each stack frame is a pointer to the previous stack frame. Since this pointer is word aligned, the lower bit is always zero. If you were to use this bit as a near/far indicator, you could then walk the stack with no problems. The compiler generates the code that correctly sets this bit to indicate the near or far nature of the function.

This technique was used by real-mode Windows compilers but is now no longer used since Windows is a protected-mode only operating system.

2.4.4 Why MakeProcInstance() Was a Design Flaw

After seeing how good a job Microsoft did with designing Windows to work under real- and protected-mode you may be amazed to learn how another problem was solved.

When an application such as Notepad is run multiple times, only one set of code ever gets loaded because code is shared under the Windows operating system. However, each Notepad does get its own copy of its data segments. Because Windows is event driven, there are many occasions where Windows calls your code. When it calls your code, how does Windows bind to the correct data segment?

The solution the Windows designers came up with is that instead of providing the address of the callback directly to Windows, you instead pass the address of some thunk code that binds to the correct data segment and then calls the true callback. This thunk code is created using MakeProcInstance().

A thunk is usually just a small piece of code that gets executed just before a real function gets executed. The purpose of a thunk is usually to bind something to the function. In the case of MakeProcInstance(), this something is the correct data segment.

MakeProcInstance() prototype
FARPROC MakeProcInstance( FARPROC lpProc, HINSTANCE hInst );

However, as it turns out, the correct data segment value used by the thunk code is already in the SS (stack segment) CPU register because an application's stack is contained in its data segment (i.e., DS==SS). This eliminates the need for the thunking code and hence MakeProcInstance() because the correct data segment to use is always in the SS register.

All compilers for the Windows environment now have compiler switches that bind to the correct data segment from the value in the SS register. MakeProcInstance() never needs to be used again. Under Microsoft C8, the command line options for this is /GA (for applications).

This technique of eliminating the need for MakeProcInstance() was originally developed by the brilliant Windows programmer Michael Geary and distributed in his FixDS utility. For an interesting discussion about Geary and the Adobe Type Manager, refer to "The Geary Incident" in Undocumented Windows.

2.4.5 Optimizing the Compiler Options

The Microsoft C8 compiler assumes the worst when selecting default command line options. The compiler defaults to options that will work in all environments. However, the default options are not always the best options and not optimizing them will add execution overhead to your program.

Instruction sets. For example, since Windows now requires at least a 286 processor (i.e., protected-mode), you can use the /G2 command line option, which tells the compiler to generate instruction sequences using the 286 instruction set. If you know that your program will be run only on 386's or better, you can even use the /G3 option, which tells the compiler to generate code using the 386 instruction set.

Prolog/Epilog code generation. Due to historical reasons in Windows using the real-mode architecture of the Intel processor, far functions required special treatment by the compiler. However, if your application is a protected-mode Windows application (and every one is today), you can optimize how the compiler generates code for these far functions. For applications, use the /GA command line option and explicitly place the __export keyword on any callback functions. For DLLs, use the /GD command line option and explicitly place the __export keyword on any callback or API functions.

Pascal calling convention. To reduce the amount of code generated to support function argument passing, it is recommended that you use the Pascal calling convention. The /Gc command line option tells the compiler that all functions should default to the Pascal calling convention. See the Pascal calling convention §2.1.11 and how it compares to the default C calling convention §2.1.11.

Remove stack-check calls. It is recommended that you compile your Windows program with stack probe checks turned off. This is done through the /Gs command line option.

2.4.6 Dynamic Dynamic Linking

Dynamic linking is at the core of the Windows operating system. It is a mechanism for resolving references to operating system components at load-time. For example, if your program calls the Windows PolyLine() function, your program does not contain the PolyLine() code. Instead, it contains a call to code that does not exist in your program. When the program is loaded into memory, the operating system patches your code so that it calls the PolyLine() code contained in the operating system. This is dynamic linking.

Dynamic dynamic linking allows you, the programmer, to link to a function at run-time. This is done through the Windows LoadLibrary(), GetProcAddress() and FreeLibrary() functions.

One good reason for using dynamic dynamic linking is that it allows a program to optionally use advanced features of the operating system while still allowing the program to be run on minimally configured systems. Suppose you write a simple terminal emulator that uses either an asynchronous port or a network port. By linking to the network library, your program cannot be run on machines that have only an asynchronous port and not a network connection because the program requires the network library to be present in order to be run. However, by using dynamic dynamic linking to the network library, your program can attempt to bind to the network library only if the user has selected an option that requires the network library to be present.

2.4.7 Messages

Windows is a message-based system. Each application running in the system has a message queue from which it is responsible for removing and dispatching messages.

It is important to realize that not all Windows messages are alike. Some messages are telling your program that an event has already happened (notification messages). Other messages are requesting your program to perform some action (action messages). This distinction is subtle and yet important to understand because knowing the difference will allow you to code simple solutions to what seem to be complex problems.

Notification messages. Receiving the WM_MOUSEMOVE message is an example of a notification message. Whenever the mouse is moved on the screen, some window will receive this message. Ignoring this message has no effect. The mouse pointer will continue to move on the screen.

Action messages. Receiving the WM_COMMAND message is an example of an action message. It is usually sent to your program in response to the user's selecting a menu item. Ignoring this message would be serious because your program is supposed to perform an action based upon this message.

Suppose you have a dialog box that contains several edit controls. The tendency of users of this dialog box is to type text into the first edit control and then press the enter key to advance to the next edit control. The problem with pressing the enter key is that it is the same as pressing the OK button, which exits the dialog box! So how can you allow the enter key to be pressed to advance to the next edit control?

The first inclination of a lot of programmers is to attempt to use subclassing to solve this problem. However, there is a much simpler solution. Pressing the enter key results in the dialog box manager sending an IDOK WM_COMMAND message to the dialog box. This message is an action message, not a notification message. The solution is to check in the IDOK processing code if the focus is on the OK button. If so, the dialog may be exited; otherwise advance the focus to the next edit control (and do not exit the dialog).
Trapping action messages is easier than subclassing is some cases.
Another good example involves moving windows. When the user moves the mouse over the caption area of a window and drags, the window is moved by Windows. Suppose you want this same moving behavior when the user clicks and drags in the window. At first glance it would appear that you would have to write a lot of code. The solution involves realizing how the WM_NCHITTEST action message works. This message is sent by the Windows internals asking the window to perform hit testing. Windows wants to know what part of the window (caption bar, left border, right border, client area, etc.) a certain point is in. The following code is the solution to the problem.

Changing a window's client area to behave like the caption area
  case WM_NCHITTEST: {
      LRESULT lRet=DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
      return ((lRet==HTCLIENT)?HTCAPTION:lRet);
      break;
      }

Placing this code in the window procedure of the appropriate window solves the problem. Since WM_NCHITTEST is an action message, we first call the default window procedure, DefWindowProc(), to perform the standard hit testing. Next we return the result of the hit test, but change the client area (HTCLIENT) to look like the caption area (HTCAPTION).


2.5 Chapter Summary

  • Before you can efficiently institute new programming methodologies that help reduce bugs in your programs, you need to fully understand your programming environment. Try to become an expert in your environment.
  • Study your environment and learn as much about it as you can. The learning process never stops. Even if you have been programming in C for many years, you will still learn new nuances about C all the time.
  • Your goal should be to become an expert in your programming environment. While becoming an expert is not a prerequisite to developing programming methodologies, it does help you develop more advanced methodologies.



Copyright © 1993-1995, 2002-2017 Jerry Jongerius
This book was previously published by Pearson Education, Inc.,
formerly known as Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-183898-9